The vegetation of Hayden falls park

 

By Hyunjung Cho
October 8th, 2019

My study site is Hayden Falls Park which locates along the riverside of Scioto river. Near the Griggs reservoir bridge and hayden run road. I didn’t recognized that there is a waterfall near this place but there is beautiful waterfall with quite various unique plants. There’s also a wooden boardwalk and steps which were constructed in 2006 to aid across the stream to approach the waterfall. This construction was made to protect natural ecosystem as well. Honestly this site was brought to my attention because this place is really close to my house also this place is one of favorite place to hang out with my dog. Ecological feature of this place is it has various conditions; sunny area with dry soil near Hayden run road roadside and wet area with high moisture near streamside. In the photo below, stream is visible and most of water in this place drains to Scioto river.

Location: The place that red marker pinpoints located (by Google map)

Address : 4326 Hayden Run Rd
Dublin, OH 43017


Figure 1. Map of Hayden falls park

PLANT COMMUNITIES

  1. Riverside near the stream and wooden boardwalk

This wooden bridge in the picture above lead us towards to Hayden falls. As I mentioned above, this wooden boardwalk locates right next to streams so it was made to prevents people damaging landscape around the woods. It is quite open area with dry to medium, moist soil. Many shrubs, small flowers, trees exists. The dominant woody plant here is white mulberry (Morus Alba) black ash (Fraxinus nigra ) and paw paw (Asimina triloba). Winged wahoo (Euonymus Alatus) was also easily found around the boardwalk.

To sum up, in this Hayden falls park, low moisture, hight moisture and limited nutrient availability conditions were combined to create something unique environment. Right next to boardwalk and stairs area, lot of various small trees, shrubs, flowers exist. Clusters of white flowers common boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum), orange colored flower called spotted touch-me-not (Impatiens Capensis) could found easily because of their unique color.

Wooden boardwalk towards Hayden falls

 

Boardwalk view to nearest stream.

 

2. Roadside

 

 

ANNOTATED SPECIES LIST

ANGIOSPERMOPHYTA (Flowering plants)

Aceraceae (maple family)

Norway maple

Acer Platanoides L. Norway maple. Alien tree. This maple tree is native to eastern and central Europe, western Asia from France east to Russia, north to southern Scandinavia and southeast to northern Iran. It was brought to America during mid-1700 as a shade tree. This tree is one of famous shade trees! It can be confused with sugar maple but distinguished by large, pointed leaves, 5 sharp pointed lobes. Interesting fact is that in North America, this Norway maple tree is valued as an ornamental tree.

Anacardiaceae (Cashew family)

Poison ivy on the tree

 

Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze. Poison ivy. CC=1. Common in the woods. Poison ivy can be identified by distinctive characteristics; three leaflets. In detail, it has pointy leaves, largest middle leaf, have berry-like fruits, and maybe during these season, leaves may be turned to red color or yellow color from dark green. Usually poison ivy grows as shrubs or vines.

Rhus aromatica Aiton. Fragrant sumac. Native shrub. CC=3. Leaves are really similar with poison-ivy however fragrant sumac is not poisonous. Can be found in woods, rocky cliffs, barrens, fields and etc. Have red berries and it may persist through winter.

Annonaceae (Custard apples family)

Paw Paw near the wooden boardwalk

 

Asimina triloba (L.) DunalPaw paw is a small, temperate, deciduous native tree to eastern North America. CC=6. Can be found in low bottom woods, wooded slopes, ravines and along streams. Leaves are simple, alternate, spirally arranged and large leaves are clustered symmetrically at ends of branches. One of fun facts regarding paw-paw is the largest fruit indigenous to North America.

Apiaceae (Umbellifers family)

Daucus carota L. Queen-anne’s-lace. Alien forb. Also called as lace flower, wild carrot, bee’s nest. It can be found near roadsides, waste places and etc. It has distinctive characteristics for example, fernlike foliage forms a rosette at the beginning of their growth. During their growth, they have cluster of flowers that looks like a bird’s nest. One interesting fact is if cows eat many Daucus carota, their milk might have undesirable flavor.

Pastinaca sativa L. Wild parsnip. Alien forb. Can be found commonly around roadside. Leaflets are yellowish-green, diamond shaped. And contact with this plant can cause skin to become photosensitive, exposure to sunlight can cause severe blistering.

Asteraceae (Aster Family)

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Common ragweed. Native forb. CC=0. Can be found in open field, prairie, meadow, rocky area and etc. This common ragweekd isn’t a Goldenrod but it is a cause of hay fever. Also this plant is a severe allergen.

Aster laevis L. Smooth aster. Native forb. CC=6. Can be found in prairies, woods, roadsides and thickets. Has violet or purple rays and yellow center disks. Sometimes it has white rays. Also it is larval host for Phyciodes tharos butterfly.

Cichorium intybus L. Chicory. Alien forb. Can be found along roadsides, railroads, fields, waste areas and etc. According to article article by Renee A.S. et al. (2013), author states that Cichorium intybus cultivated to produce the taproot as a inulin extraction, coffee substitute.

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Canada thistle. Alien forb.

Echinacea purpurea (L.) moench. Purple coneflower. Native forb. CC=6. Has brownish central disk with small scattered, thin, lavender colored rays. Stems of dead flower will remain erect well into the winter season. Also it typically grows about 2 to 4′ tall and can be found in woods, meadows or moist areas such as prairies.

 

 

Rough fleabane near roadside

 

Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex willd. Rough fleabane. Native forb. CC=1. It can be found in fields, along roadsides, railroads, prairies and etc. This flower appears like a daisy it has yellow centered disk with white linear rays but sometimes it has pink or purple colored rays. I was quite confused with Eurybia divaricata however it has more round rays than sharp linear rays.

Eupatorium perfoliatum L. Common boneset. Native forb. CC=3. Can be found near roadsides, edges of rivers or wetlands such as seeps, fens, bogs, marshes and etc. Clusters of white flowers at the top of stems and has paired leaves. Dried leaves of common boneset also used as a tea which is effective in treating colds, constipation and coughs.

white aster near the hayden run roadside

Eurybia divaricata (L.) G.L. Nesom. White wood aster. Herbaceous plant, native forb. CC=5. Common in wild, dry open woods as well as roadsides, clearings and etc. Distinct characteristics are heart-shaped, stalked leaves and white rays with yellow center disks. Formerly this species was named Aster divaricatus, but it was reclassified Eurybia. And divaricata which is the species name refer to the spreading habitat.

 

Heliopsis Helianthoides near the roadside

 

Heliopsis Helianthoides (L.) Sweet. Smooth oxeye or False sunflower. This flowering plant is in the Asteraceae family, native to eastern, central North America. CC=5. As common name ‘false sunflower’, this plant is sunflower-like, daisy-like flowers. Common along the roadside. Has brownish-yellow center cones with yellow-orange rays.

Polymnia canadensis L. Leafcup. Native forb. CC=5. Has quite big, opposite leaves but found also alternate leaves. Can be found near streams or woodlands. Sometimes rays are few or absent and sap has sticky, pleasantly fragrant.

Senecio glabellus Poir. Butterweed. Alien forb. Common along the roadside also can be found in along rivers, waste areas, swamps and etc. Stout stems are topped by large cluster of yellow, daisy-like flowers. Seeds germinate in late fall and water. Attracts bees and butterflies. Usually forms large colonies in moist-to-wet habitat.

Solidago canadensis L. Canada goldenrod. Native herbaceous perennial plant. CC=1. This forb has cluster of yellow flowers at the top heads with leafy, tall stem. Can grow in fields, roadsides, riverbanks, woodlands, floodplains and etc. Shoots of young Canada goldenrod remain connected by way of rhizomes for almost 4 yrs.

Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F.H. Wigg. Common dandelion. Alien forb. Can be found along roads, railroads, gardens, vacant lots and etc. Sometimes, young leaves of Dandelion are used in salads or boiled as a potherb.

Verbesina alternifolia (L.) Britton ex Kearney. Wingstem. Native forb. CC=5

Vernonia gigantea (Walter) Trel. Tall Ironweed. Native forb. CC=2.

 

Balsaminaceae (Balsam family)

Impatiens Capensis Meerb. Spotted touch-me-not. Native forb. CC=2. Can be found along riversides, creeks, ditches and etc. Has little, orange flowers with 3-lobed corolla. Leaves and stems can be used as a remedy for skin rashes.

Boraginaceae (Borage family)

Hackelia virginiana (L.) I.M. Johnst. Virginia stickseed. Native forb. CC=2.

Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle family)

 

Lonicera maackii near the wooden stairs which towards to roadside

Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Maxim. Amur honeysuckle. Alien shrub. Can be found in woods, neglected urban areas and etc. It has flowers during spring to summer season. If you eat these flowers, bottom part tastes like sweet nectar. It has opposite leaves with red fruits during fall season. However berries are mildly poisonous to humans.

Celastraceae (Staff-vine family)

Euonymus Alatus near the streamside

Euonymus Alatus (Thunb.) Siebold. Winged wahoo. Alient shrub. This flowering plant is native to central and northern China, Japan and Korea also in the family Celastraceae. Can be found near roadsides, forest edges. Fun fact is in some areas, it’s considered to be a threat to native plants the reason why is its ability to establish itself in woodlands, fields, forests and disturbed areas where if conditions are favorable, it will out-compete native plants to form dense thickets.

Cupressaceae (Cypress family)

Juniperus virginiana L. Eastern red cedar. Native tree. CC=3. Commonly found in prairies, along highways, limestone hills and etc. Evergreen tree with sharp leaves, fibrous, brownish bark. pollen cones in late winter to spring. It’s an alternate host for cedar-apple rust. It is an economically important to fungal disease of apples.

Fabaceae (Pea family)

Cercis canadensis L. Redbud. Native small tree. CC=3. Commonly found along woodland. Easily can be found throughout Ohio. Leaves are simple, alternate, heart-shaped and during summer it has pink flowers. Flowers of redbud can be eaten fresh or fried. Native Americans often consume flowers of redbud. Flower extract contains anthocyanin.

Coronilla varia L. Crown-vetch. Alien forb.

Juglandaceae (Walnut family)

Juglans nigra L. Black walnut. Native tree. CC=5. Can be found along the streams, rich woods or valleys and etc. Young trees of Juglans nigra begin to produce nuts during 4~6 years. Usually takes over 20 years to get a large crop of nuts. Nut matures during autumn and it also used as food or syrup.

Lauraceae (Laurels family)

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees. Sassafras is in Lauraceae family and Missouri native, medium sized deciduous tree. Can be found in woods, forests or around swamps. CC=3. Most distinctive characteristic is long leaves in three-lobed shapes (unlobed, two-lobed are also can be found) with bright green color. Moreover it can be used as culinary purposes for example, root-beer, sassafras oils, teas and etc.

Moraceae (Mulberry family)

White mulberry

Morus Alba L. White mulberry. Alien tree. White mulberry is native to China and has toothed margins and broadly oval, shiny, variously-lobed leaves. Interesting fact regarding white mulberry is that the silkworm is thought to prefer mulberries over all other plants due to a unique smell given off by the mulberry and to special organs in the caterpillar that respond to the taste of mulberry leaves. Silk proteins are derived only from mulberry leaves.

Oleaceae (Olive family)

Fraxinus nigra

Fraxinus nigra Marshall. Black ash. Native tree. CC=7. Can be found near small-scale stream. This tree lose its leaves during fall. It has opposite, compound pairs of leaves with dark green color. This tree has a wide pH tolerance, usually lives over 140 years rarely up to 200 years. Wood of black ash used as baskets by Native Americans of the North East. So sometimes black ash called basket ash.

Plantaginaceae (Plantain family)

Plantago major L. Common plantain. Alien forb. Can be found along roadsides or fields. This plant is one of the most abundant and widely distributed medicinal crops the reason why is leaves of Plantago major can be used for wounds, sores to heal infection. Also young leaves are edible as salad. Older leaves has high calcium and minerals so can be cooked for stews.

Platanaceae (Plane tree family)

Platanus occidentalis L. Sycamore. Native tree. CC=7. Commonly found throughout state of Ohio, typically along streams, flood plains and etc. This tree is tall with big branches, large bark with broad and wide leaves. Globular fruits often survive through December. Sycamore grows to massive proportions when it grown in deep soils. Tree is often divided near ground into several secondary trunks.

Poaceae (Grass family)

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. Goose grass. Alien grass. Found in roadsides, fields, gardens, lawns, cracks in city sidewalks or pavements and etc. It often found in heavy compacted soil as well. It’s a typical weed of disturbed urban areas. It has alternate leaves and flattened, green culms. Seeds are edible so sometimes it used as a famine food.

Polygonaceae (Buckwheat family)

Polygonum persicaria L. Lady’s thumb. Alien forb. Commonly found edges of streams, roadside, marshy areas, vacant lots and etc. Has alternate leaves and pink flowers with no scent. This lady’s thumb often forms colonies. Common plant that can be observed in areas that has moisture soils also it prefers disturbed areas.

Rumex crispus L. Curly dock. Alien forb.

Rosaceae (Rose Family)

Rosa multiflora Thunb. ex Murray. Multiflora rose. Alien shrub.

Scrophulariaceae (Figwort Family)

Verbascum thapsus L. Common mullein. Alien forb. Commonly found in meadows, roadsides, banksides and etc. It has ability to grow in a wide range of habitats. It has big rosette of leaves and small flowers. It hosts many insects such as Galendromus, Typhlodromus and etc. It also has been used to make dyes and torches.

Ulmaceae (Elm family)

Celtis occidentalis L. Hackberry. Native tree. CC=4. Found common along streams, drier upland slopes, woods. Has fleshy, berrylike drupes which colored dark purple. Wood of hackberry is heavy, soft so sometimes it is used for fencing or cheap furniture.

Ulmus americana L. American elm. Native tree. CC=2. Commonly found along streams or low moist ground and etc. Leaves turns in yellow during fall season and this tree adapts well to both wet and dry sites. This tree is an extremely hardy tree so it can survive winter temperatures as low as minus 42 deg C. Also this tree is highly susceptible to Dutch elm diseases which is a fungal diseases that has ravaged the American elm tree.

Ulmus Rubra

 

Ulmus rubra Muhl. Slippery Elm. Native to east North America. CC=3. This deciduous tree has alternate, asymmetrical leaves with dark green color. Can be found near riverside or other wetlands. Interesting fact is if you find this slippery elm near riverside, this wood is one of food sources of the beaver! It can be distinguished by downy twigs. Another interesting fact regarding this tree is that the yoke of the Liberty Bell, a symbol of the independence of the United States, was made from slippery elm.

Urticaceae (Nettle Family)

Pilea pumila (L.) A. Gray. Clearweed. Native forb. CC=2. Commonly found in floodplain forests, borders of small streams, shaded wetland areas and etc. It has opposite, simple foliage with long petioles. Has small, greenish yellow flowers which pollinated by wind.

Verbenaceae (Verbena family)

Verbena hastata L. Blue vervain. Native forb. CC=4. Can be found near streams, wet meadows, waste areas, fields and etc. It has hairy stems, tiny, purplish blue flowers with sharp, toothed greenish leaves. Can be short-lived. This plant prefers in medium to wet soils and forms colonies.

Verbena urticifolia L. White vervain. Native forb. CC=3.

Lichens

RUFFLE LICHEN (Parmotrema hypotropum)

This lichen is leafy-like foliose form. Found on the surface of rock. Also it is common on twigs, trunks in open places. (Common Lichens of Ohio Field Guide)

Low CC

Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze. Poison ivy. CC=1

Common in the woods. Poison ivy can be identified by distinctive characteristics; three leaflets. In detail, it has pointy leaves, largest middle leaf, have berry-like fruits, and maybe during these season, leaves may be turned to red color or yellow color from dark green. Usually poison ivy grows as shrubs or vines. Rash can be caused by urushinol which is a clear liquid compound in the plant’s sap. Found somewhere in the woods.

https://www.nps.gov/fiis/planyourvisit/avoid-poison-ivy.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toxicodendron_radicans

Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex willd. Rough fleabane. Native forb. CC=1

It can be found in fields, along roadsides, railroads, prairies and etc. This flower appears like a daisy it has yellow centered disk with white linear rays but sometimes it has pink or purple colored rays. I was quite confused with Eurybia divaricata however it has more round rays than sharp linear rays. Found near roadside.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erigeron_strigosus

 

High CC

Fraxinus nigra Marshall. Black ash. Native tree. CC=7.

Can be found near small-scale stream and i found this beside the wood bridge near the fall. This tree lose its leaves during fall. It has opposite, compound pairs of leaves with dark green color. This tree has a wide pH tolerance, usually lives over 140 years rarely up to 200 years. Opposite, pinnately compound leaves are exist with finely toothed margin. Wood of black ash used as baskets by Native Americans of the North East. So sometimes black ash called basket ash.

http://www.tree-guide.com/black-ash

 

Asimina triloba (L.) DunalPaw paw. Native tree. CC=6

Paw Paw is a small, temperate, deciduous native tree to eastern North America. CC=6. Can be found in low bottom woods, wooded slopes, ravines and along streams. Leaves are simple, alternate, spirally arranged and large leaves are clustered symmetrically at ends of branches. One of  facts regarding paw-paw is the largest fruit indigenous to North America. Found in the hayden falls park near the wooden bridge.

The Floristic Quality Assessment Index (FQAI) = 18.709

I= ∑(CCi)/√(Nnative)

 

< References >

https://www.columbus.gov/recreationandparks/parks/Hayden-Falls-Park/

How to Identify, Remove, and Treat Poison Ivy

Pick A Pawpaw

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acer_platanoides

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euonymus_alatus

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heliopsis_helianthoides

http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=a926

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http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=a922

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https://www.columbus.gov/recreationandparks/parks/Hayden-Falls-Park/