Whetstone Park Species List

  1. Acer negundo, Boxelder Maple. CC=3
  2. Acer saccharinum, Silver Maple. CC=3
  3. Andropogon gerardii, Big Bluestem. CC=5
  4. Asimina triloba, Common Pawpaw. CC=6
  5. Celtis occidentalis, Common Hackberry. CC=4
  6. Cercis canadensis, Redbud. CC=3
  7. Cirsium altissimum, Tall Thistle. CC=4
  8. Echinacea purpurea, Purple Coneflower. CC=6
  9. Elymus canadensis, Canada Wildrye. CC=6
  10. Elymus virginicus, Virginia Wildrye. CC=3
  11. EUONYMUS FORTUNEI, Fortune’s Spindle. CC=*
  12. Fraxinus quadrangulata, Blue Ash. CC=3
  13. Gleditsia triacanthos, Honey Locust. CC=4
  14. Juglans nigra, Eastern Black Walnut. CC=5
  15. LONICERA MAACKII, Amur Honeysuckle. CC=*
  16. MACLURA POMIFERA, Osage-Orange. CC=*
  17. MICROSTEGIUM VIMINEUM, Japanese Siltgrass. CC=*
  18. Ostrya virginiana, Hop Hornbeam. CC=5
  19. Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Virginia Creeper. CC=2
  20. Plantago virginica, Virginia Plantain. CC=1
  21. Platanus occidentalis, Sycamore. CC=7
  22. Quercus bicolor, Swamp White Oak. CC=7
  23. Quercus macrocarpa, Bur Oak. CC=6
  24. ROSA MULTIFLORA, Multiflora Rose. CC=*
  25. Silphium perfoliatum, Cup Plant. CC=6
  26. Thuja occidentalis, Northern White Cedar, or Arbor Vitae. CC=9
  27. Typha latifolia, Broad-Leaved Cat-Tail. CC=1
  28. Verbesina alternifolia, Wingstem. CC=5
  29. VIBURNUM OPULUS, Guelder-rose. CC=*

 

FQAI for the site: 4.59

 

Plants with High CC Values

  • Echinacea purpurea, Purple Coneflower. CC=6

Purple Coneflower

 

  • Platanus occidentalis, Sycamore. CC=7

Sycamore Leaves

Sycamore Tree

 

  • Quercus bicolor, Swamp White Oak. CC=7

Swamp White Oak

 

  • Thuja occidentalis, Northern White Cedar, or Arbor Vitae. CC=9

The Northern White Cedar has a high CC value due to regeneration failures such as germination substrate, overstory competition, understory competition, browsing by whitetail deer, and hydrologic conditions in wetlands (Reuling, 2019). This leads to a concern that it will not be maintained in future forests.

Northern White Cedar

 

 

Plants With Low CC Values

  • Acer saccharinum, Silver Maple. CC=3

Silver Maple

 

  • Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Virginia Creeper. CC=2

Virginia Creeper

 

  • Plantago virginica, Virginia Plantain. CC=1

Virginia Plantain

 

  • Typha latifolia, Broad-Leaved Cat-Tail. CC=1

This whole genus has become incredibly widespread due to its abundance of wind dispersed seeds. This allows it to colonize across great distances. Additionally, it has a rapid growth rate, large stature, and aggressive clonal propagation (Bansal, 2019).

Cat-Tail

 

Invasive Species

  • LONICERA MAACKII, Amur Honeysuckle.

This species is particularly dangerous as an invasive species because it is thought to be allelopathic. This means that it reduces the germination rate of both native and exotic herbaceous species, which can be detrimental to the ecosystem that it is invading (Shannon & Bauer, 2011).

Amur Honeysuckle

Amur Honeysuckle

 

  • MICROSTEGIUM VIMINEUM, Japanese Siltgrass.

This invasive species is particularly dangerous because it has been found to have little to no value as food for grazers like white-tail deer and so they avoid it and consume native plants nearby, giving it the opportunity to invade the vacant spaces left behind (Sea Grant Pennsylvania, 2018).

Japanese Stiltgrass

 

  • ROSA MULTIFLORA, Multiflora Rose.

One interesting fact about this species is that its spread in the USA was deliberately encouraged by the US Soil Conservation Service from the 1930s to 1960s, when it was widely planted as a wildlife plant for erosion control and as a hedge (Popay, 2013).

Multiflora Rose

 

  • VIBURNUM OPULUS, Guelder-rose.

One interesting fact about this species is that it has several medicinal uses such as relieving premenstrual syndrome, alleviating muscle tension, and calming anxiety (Herbazest Editorial Team, 2020).

Guelder-Rose

 

 

Plants mentioned in Jane Forsyth’s article

  • Celtis occidentalis, Common Hackberry

This plant is most often used as firewood though it is occasionally used for inexpensive furniture construction. It is most commonly found in limestone or limy substrates (Sciencing, 2018).

Common Hackberry

 

  • Cercis canadensis, Redbud

Redbud tree is also known as Judas tree. According to the legend, Judas Iscariot hanged himself on the Redbud Tree after he betrayed Christ. Since it was ashamed, Redbud tree changed the color of the bloom from white to red (Soft Schools, 2017). This species is commonly found in limestone substrates.

Redbud

 

  • Fraxinus quadrangulata, Blue Ash 

Blue ash has a gelatinous substance on its inner bark that turns blue when exposed to air. It was used by pioneers as blue dye. This is the quality for which blue ash is named (University of Kentucky, 2021). This species is commonly found in limestone substrates.

Blue Ash

 

  • Ostrya virginiana, Hop Hornbeam

Native Americans used hop hornbeam to treat toothache and sore muscles, coughs, hemorrhages in the lungs, kidney disease, tuberculosis, and a host of other ailments (Illinois State Museum, 2019). This species is commonly found in limestone substrates.

Hop Hornbeam

 

 

Citations

Bansal, Sheel. 2019. Typha (Cattail) Invasion in North American Wetlands: Biology, Regional Problems, Impacts, Ecosystem Services, and Management. Wetlands. Accessed at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13157-019-01174-7

Herbazest Editorial Team. 2020. Guelder Rose. Accessed at https://www.herbazest.com/herbs/guelder-rose

Illinois State Museum. 2019. Hop Hornbeam. Accessed at http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/forest/htmls/trees/O-virginiana.html

Popay, Ian. 2013. Rosa Multiflora. Invasive Species Copendium. Accessed at https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/47824

Reuling, Laura F., Kern Christel C., Kenefic, Laura S., Bronson, Dustin R. 2019. The Northern White-Cedar Recruitment Bottleneck: Understanding the Effects of Substrate, Competition, and Deer Browsing. Forest Ecology and Management. Accessed at https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/10/6/501/htm

Sciencing. 2018. Interesting Facts About the Hackberry Tree. Accessed at https://sciencing.com/interesting-hackberry-tree-6513384.html

Sea Grant Pennsylvania. 2018. Japanese Stiltgrass. Accessed at https://seagrant.psu.edu/sites/default/files/Japanese%20Stiltgrass%20Fact%20Sheet%20%202018.pdf

Shannon, Sarah M., Bauer, Jonathan T. 2011. Amur honeysuckle’s allelopathic effects on native plant germination are context-dependent. 96th ESA Annual Convention 2011. Accessed at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267282324_Amur_honeysuckle’s_allelopathic_effects_on_native_plant_germination_are_context-dependent

Soft Schools. 2017. Redbud Tree Facts. Accessed at https://www.softschools.com/facts/plants/redbud_tree_facts/679/

University of Kentucky Department of Horticulture. 2021. Blue Ash. Accessed at https://www.uky.edu/hort/Blue-Ash